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Thermodynamics: Property Tables

Property Tables

Property tables also known as thermodynamic tables, are tables that will provide information for temperature, pressure, specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy at a certain value of temperature or pressure. There are two different types of tables that you could come across. The first type of table considers that property when it is in saturated state between a liquid or a gas. To use this table you need to know the saturation temperature or saturation pressure that you are interested in looking up. Below there are two saturation tables for water. One table considers the saturation temperature, and the other considers the saturation pressure.

Saturated Temprature Water Table
Source: Thermodynamics an Engineering Approach ISBN 978-0-07-352921-9

Temp
T °C
Sat
press.
Psat kPa
Specific Volume
Sat. Liquid ν f
(m3/kg )
----------------
Sat. Vapor ν g
(m3/kg)
Internal Energy
Sat. liquid u f
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Evap u fg
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Sat. Vapor u g
(kJ/kg)
Enthalpy
Sat. liquid h f
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Evap h fg
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Sat. Vapor h g
(kJ/kg)
Entropy
Sat. liquid s f
(kJ/kg . K)
----------------
Evap s fg
(kJ/kg . K)
----------------
Sat. Vapor h s
(kJ/kg . K)
0.01 0.6117 0.001000 206.00 0.000 2374.9 2374.9 0.001 2500.9 2500.9 0.0000 9.1556 9.1556
5 0.8725 0.001000 147.03 21.019 2360.8 2381.8 21.020 2489.1 2510.1 0.0763 8.9487 9.0249
10 1.2281 0.001000 106.32 42.020 2346.6 2388.7 42.022 2477.2 2519.2 0.1511 8.7488 8.8999
15 1.7057 0.001001 77.885 62.980 2332.5 2395.5 62.982 2465.4 2528.3 0.2245 8.5559 8.7803
20 2.3392 0.001002 57.762 83.913 2318.4 2402.3 83.915 2453.5 2537.4 0.2965 8.3696 8.6661
25 3.1698 0.001003 43.340 104.83 2304.3 2409.1 104.83 2441.7 2546.5 0.3672 8.1895 8.5567
30 4.2469 0.001004 32.879 125.73 2290.2 2415.9 125.74 2429.8 2555.6 0.4368 8.0152 8.4520
35 5.6291 0.001006 25.205 146.63 2276.0 2422.7 146.64 2417.9 2564.6 0.5051 7.8466 8.3517
40 7.3851 0.001008 19.515 167.53 2261.9 2429.4 167.53 2406.0 2573.5 0.5724 7.6832 8.2556
45 9.5953 0.001010 15.251 188.43 2247.7 2436.1 188.44 2394.0 2582.4 0.6386 7.5247 8.1633
50 12.352 0.001012 12.026 209.33 2233.4 2442.7 209.34 2382.0 2591.3 0.7038 7.3710 8.0748
55 15.763 0.001015 9.5639 230.24 2219.1 2449.3 230.26 2369.8 2600.1 0.7680 7.2218 7.9898
60 19.947 0.001017 7.6670 251.16 2204.7 2455.9 251.18 2357.7 2608.8 0.8313 7.0769 7.9082
65 25.043 0.001020 6.1935 272.09 2190.3 2462.4 272.12 2345.4 2617.5 0.8937 6.9360 7.8296
70 31.202 0.001023 5.0396 293.04 2175.8 2468.9 293.07 2333.0 2626.1 0.9551 6.7989 7.7540
75 38.597 0.001026 4.1291 313.99 2161.3 2475.3 314.03 2320.6 2634.6 1.0158 6.6655 7.6812
80 47.416 0.001029 3.4053 334.97 2146.6 2481.6 335.02 2308.0 2643.0 1.0756 6.5355 7.6111
85 57.868 0.001032 2.8261 355.96 2131.9 2487.8 356.02 2295.3 2651.4 1.1346 6.4089 7.5435
90 70.183 0.001036 2.3593 376.97 2117.0 2494.0 377.04 2282.5 2659.6 1.1929 6.2853 7.4782
95 84.609 0.001040 1.9808 398.00 2102.0 2500.1 398.09 2269.6 2667.6 1.2504 6.1647 7.4151
100 101.42 0.001043 1.6720 419.06 2087.0 2506.0 419.17 2256.4 2675.6 1.3072 6.0470 7.3542
105 120.90 0.001047 1.4186 440.15 2071.8 2511.9 440.28 2243.1 2683.4 1.3634 5.9319 7.2952
110 143.38 0.001052 1.2094 461.27 2056.4 2517.7 461.42 2229.7 2691.1 1.4188 5.8193 7.2382
115 169.18 0.001056 1.0360 482.42 2040.9 2523.3 482.59 2216.0 2698.6 1.4737 5.7092 7.1829
120 198.67 0.001060 0.89133 503.60 2025.3 2528.9 503.81 2202.1 2706.0 1.5279 5.6013 7.1292
125 232.23 0.001065 0.77012 524.83 2009.5 2534.3 525.07 2188.1 2713.1 1.5816 5.4956 7.0771
130 270.28 0.001070 0.66808 546.10 1993.4 2539.5 546.38 2173.7 2720.1 1.6346 5.3919 7.0265
135 313.22 0.001075 0.58179 567.41 1977.3 2544.7 567.75 2159.1 2726.9 1.6872 5.2901 6.9773
140 361.53 0.001080 0.50850 588.77 1960.9 2549.6 589.16 2144.3 2733.5 1.7392 5.1901 6.9294
145 415.68 0.001085 0.44600 610.19 1944.2 2554.4 610.64 2129.2 2739.8 1.7908 5.0919 6.8827
150 476.16 0.001091 0.39248 631.66 1927.4 2559.1 632.18 2113.8 2745.9 1.8418 4.9953 6.8371
155 543.49 0.001096 0.34648 653.19 1910.3 2563.5 653.79 2098.0 2751.8 1.8924 4.9002 6.7927
160 618.23 0.001102 0.30680 674.79 1893.0 2567.8 675.47 2082.0 2757.5 1.9426 4.8066 6.7492
165 700.93 0.001108 0.27244 696.46 1875.4 2571.9 697.24 2065.6 2762.8 1.9923 4.7143 6.7067
170 792.18 0.001114 0.24260 718.20 1857.5 2575.7 719.08 2048.8 2767.9 2.0417 4.6233 6.6650
175 892.60 0.001121 0.21659 740.02 1839.4 2579.4 741.02 2031.7 2772.7 2.0906 4.5335 6.6242
180 1002.8 0.001127 0.19384 761.92 1820.9 2582.8 763.05 2014.2 2777.2 2.1392 4.4448 6.5841
185 1123.5 0.001134 0.17390 783.91 1802.1 2586.0 785.19 1996.2 2781.4 2.1875 4.3572 6.5447
190 1255.2 0.001141 0.15636 806.00 1783.0 2589.0 807.43 1977.9 2785.3 2.2355 4.2705 6.5059
195 1398.8 0.001149 0.14089 828.18 1763.6 2591.7 829.78 1959.0 2788.8 2.2831 4.1847 6.4678
200 1554.9 0.001157 0.12721 850.46 1743.7 2594.2 852.26 1939.8 2792.0 2.3305 4.0997 6.4302


Saturated Pressure Water Table
Source: Thermodynamics an Engineering Approach ISBN 978-0-07-352921-9

Sat
press.
Psat kPa
Temp
T °C
Specific Volume
Sat. Liquid ν f
(m3/kg )
----------------
Sat. Vapor ν g
(m3/kg)
Internal Energy
Sat. liquid u f
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Evap u fg
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Sat. Vapor u g
(kJ/kg)
Enthalpy
Sat. liquid h f
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Evap h fg
(kJ/kg)
----------------
Sat. Vapor h g
(kJ/kg)
Entropy
Sat. liquid s f
(kJ/kg . K)
----------------
Evap s fg
(kJ/kg . K)
----------------
Sat. Vapor h s
(kJ/kg . K)
1.0 6.97 0.001000 129.19 29.302 2355.2 2384.5 29.303 2484.4 2513.7 0.1059 8.8690 8.9749
1.5 13.02 0.001001 87.964 54.686 2338.1 2392.8 54.688 2470.1 2524.7 0.1956 8.6314 8.8270
2.0 17.50 0.001001 66.990 73.431 2325.5 2398.9 73.433 2459.5 2532.9 0.2606 8.4621 8.7227
2.5 21.08 0.001002 54.242 88.422 2315.4 2403.8 88.424 2451.0 2539.4 0.3118 8.3302 8.6421
3.0 24.08 0.001003 45.654 100.98 2306.9 2407.9 100.98 2443.9 2544.8 0.3543 8.2222 8.5765
4.0 28.96 0.001004 34.791 121.39 2293.1 2414.5 121.39 2432.3 2553.7 0.4224 8.0510 8.4734
5.0 32.87 0.001005 28.185 137.75 2282.1 2419.8 137.75 2423.0 2560.7 0.4762 7.9176 8.3938
7.5 40.29 0.001008 19.233 168.74 2261.1 2429.8 168.75 2405.3 2574.0 0.5763 7.6738 8.2501
10 45.81 0.001010 14.670 191.79 2245.4 2437.2 191.81 2392.1 2583.9 0.6492 7.4996 8.1488
15 53.97 0.001014 10.020 225.93 2222.1 2448.0 225.94 2372.3 2598.3 0.7549 7.2522 8.0071
20 60.06 0.001017 7.6481 251.40 2204.6 2456.0 251.42 2357.5 2608.9 0.8320 7.0752 7.9073
25 64.96 0.001020 6.2034 271.93 2190.4 2462.4 271.96 2345.5 2617.5 0.8932 6.9370 7.8302
30 69.09 0.001022 5.2287 289.24 2178.5 2467.7 289.27 2335.3 2624.6 0.9441 6.8234 7.7675
40 75.86 0.001026 3.9933 317.58 2158.8 2476.3 317.62 2318.4 2636.1 1.0261 6.6430 7.6691
50 81.32 0.001030 3.2403 340.49 2142.7 2483.2 340.54 2304.7 2645.2 1.0912 6.5019 7.5931
75 91.76 0.001037 2.2172 384.36 2111.8 2496.1 384.44 2278.0 2662.4 1.2132 6.2426 7.4558
100 99.61 0.001043 1.6941 417.40 2088.2 2505.6 417.51 2257.5 2675.0 1.3028 6.0562 7.3589
101.325 99.97 0.001043 1.6734 418.95 2087.0 2506.0 419.06 2256.5 2675.6 1.3069 6.0476 7.3545
125 105.97 0.001048 1.3750 444.23 2068.8 2513.0 444.36 2240.6 2684.9 1.3741 5.9100 7.2841
150 111.35 0.001053 1.1594 466.97 2052.3 2519.2 467.13 2226.0 2693.1 1.4337 5.7894 7.2231
175 116.04 0.001057 1.0037 486.82 2037.7 2524.5 487.01 2213.1 2700.2 1.4850 5.6865 7.1716
200 120.21 0.001061 0.88578 504.50 2024.6 2529.1 504.71 2201.6 2706.3 1.5302 5.5968 7.1270
225 123.97 0.001064 0.79329 520.47 2012.7 2533.2 520.71 2191.0 2711.7 1.5706 5.5171 7.0877
250 127.41 0.001067 0.71873 535.08 2001.8 2536.8 535.35 2181.2 2716.5 1.6072 5.4453 7.0525
275 130.58 0.001070 0.65732 548.57 1991.6 2540.1 548.86 2172.0 2720.9 1.6408 5.3800 7.0207
300 133.52 0.001073 0.60582 561.11 1982.1 2543.2 561.43 2163.5 2724.9 1.6717 5.3200 6.9917
325 136.27 0.001076 0.56199 572.84 1973.1 2545.9 573.19 2155.4 2728.6 1.7005 5.2645 6.9650
350 138.86 0.001079 0.52422 583.89 1964.6 2548.5 584.26 2147.7 2732.0 1.7274 5.2128 6.9402
375 141.30 0.001081 0.49133 594.32 1956.6 2550.9 594.73 2140.4 2735.1 1.7526 5.1645 6.9171
400 143.61 0.001084 0.46242 604.22 1948.9 2553.1 604.66 2133.4 2738.1 1.7765 5.1191 6.8955
450 147.90 0.001088 0.41392 622.65 1934.5 2557.1 623.14 2120.3 2743.4 1.8205 5.0356 6.8561
500 151.83 0.001093 0.37483 639.54 1921.2 2560.7 640.09 2108.0 2748.1 1.8604 4.9603 6.8207
550 155.46 0.001097 0.34261 655.16 1908.8 2563.9 655.77 2096.6 2752.4 1.8970 4.8916 6.7886
600 158.83 0.001101 0.31560 669.72 1897.1 2566.8 670.38 2085.8 2756.2 1.9308 4.8285 6.7593
650 161.98 0.001104 0.29260 683.37 1886.1 2569.4 684.08 2075.5 2759.6 1.9623 4.7699 6.7322
700 164.95 0.001108 0.27278 696.23 1875.6 2571.8 697.00 2065.8 2762.8 1.9918 4.7153 6.7071
750 167.75 0.001111 0.25552 708.40 1865.6 2574.0 709.24 2056.4 2765.7 2.0195 4.6642 6.6837

Another property that you should know when using a saturation table is the quality of the mixture (x). By knowing what the quality of the mixture is you can determine how much of the saturated mixture is liquid and how much is gas. Knowing this will allow you to calculate the correct specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy. For example, to calculate the internal energy of a saturated mixture when you know the quality the following equation would be used.

Quality Equation of Saturated Substance (1)

The same type of equation would be used to calculate the values for specific volume, enthalpy, and entropy. If the mixture was 100% liquid x would equal 0 and if it was 100% gas x would equal 1.

The second table that you could come across is a table that represents a superheated substance. Below you can see the table for superheated water at a constant pressure of 100kPa.

Superheated Water Table at 100KPa

Temp
T °C
Specific Volume (ν)
(m3/kg )
Internal Energy (u)
(kJ/kg)
Enthalpy (h)
(kJ/kg)
Entropy (s)
(kJ/kg . K)
Sat.
1.6941
2505.6
2675.0
7.3589
100
1.6959
2506.2
2675.8
7.3611
150
1.9367
2582.9
2776.6
7.6148
200
2.1724
2658.2
2875.5
7.8356
250
2.4062
2733.9
2974.5
8.0346
300
2.6389
2810.7
3074.5
8.2172
400
3.1027
2968.3
3278.6
8.5452
500
3.5655
3132.2
3488.7
8.8362

The tables above represent only a portion of the data for water. However, any thermodynamics book will provide a more complete set of data in addition to other substances.

Interpolation

Interpolation is a mathematical method used to predict a value when it is not provided on a table. Knowing how to interpolate is very useful when using thermodynamic tables because it is very rare that you would be looking up a temperature or pressure that is on the tables. Instead what you want to know could be in between a value that is higher and a value that is lower. The equation below shows how to linear interpolate to find a value that is not provided on the tables.

Linear interpolation equation (2)

For the equation above Y represents the value you are trying to find, X represents the value you know but is not on the table, X1 and Y1 represent the two lower values on the table, and X2 and Y2 represent the two higher values on the table.

Enthalpy and Entropy

Enthalpy and entropy are two new properties that you may or may not be familiar with. Enthalpy, or sometimes referred to as the heat content or total heat of a substance, is typically used to analyze steam engines. Enthalpy is the combination of internal energy and the product of pressure and specific volume; refer to equation 3.

Enthalpy Equation (3)

Entropy on the other hand is the measurement of thermal energy per unit mass that is not available to perform work.

Both properties will be discussed in further detail in later sections.

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